An overdrawn director's loan account is created when a director (or other close family member) 'borrows' money from their company. Many companies, particularly 'close' private companies, pay for personal expenses of directors using company funds. Where these payments do not form part of a director’s remuneration, they are usually posted to the director’s loan account (DLA).
The DLA can represent cash drawn by a director as well as other drawings by a director (including personal bills paid by the company). Whilst it is quite common for small company accounts to show an overdrawn position on a DLA, this can create some unwelcome consequences for both the company and the director. The rules are further complicated if the loan is for more than £10,000 as interest must be charged and be reported on the directors’ personal Self-Assessment tax return.
There are also further Income Tax costs if the loan is written off or 'released' (not repaid) by the company. If this happens, the company must deduct Class 1 National Insurance through the company’s payroll. The director will be required to pay Income Tax on the loan through their Self-Assessment tax return.